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钢筋混凝土梁的正截面受弯性能试验-指导书和试验报告


probl ems that cannot be ignored. Some lea ders unwilling t o do mass es w ork, masse s concept weak, on mas ses feeli ngs not deep, pe ndulum not are with mas ses of relationshi p, thi nk mas ses w ork is rev oluti onary w ar era of thi ngs, now obs olete ha s, buried busine ss w ork, ig nore d masse s work of situation compare d Ge neral; some lea ders not do ma sses work, old met hod regardl ess of with, new not with, not understand masse s psychologi cal, not understand masse s wis hes, not sai d masse s lang uage, w ork method simple stiff, cause d masse s of conflict and anti pathy; s ome lea ders can't do mas ses w ork, Face d with a lot of contradi ctions among the pe ople worry a bout fear, pani c set i n e ncount er group eve nts, a nd s ome are even misma naged, inflame, s o w ork ha s s uffered heavy l osse s, a nd so on. Thes e pr oblems we are soberly aware, enhancing t he party's ruli ng ca pability, the maintenance and development of the party's adva nce d nat ure a nd purity, an d to enhance the ability of part y

committees and leadi ng ca dres are good people.

Attach great importance to a nd is g ood at doi ng mass w ork, has become the new urgent situati on stre ngthe ning t he party's gov erning capa city-buil ding task s. Combined pra ctice of maintaini ng flesh -and-blood ties with the mas ses, urged the broad mas ses of party members and ca dres, es pe cially all levels ... Pr oce ssing t o improve a s a guide to the country. "" What I di d is s ummed up these new things, be pr omoted. "This is a vivi d manifestation of the De ng Xia opi ng's mas s. De ng also put people "support does not support", "agreed not to agree", "happy happy", "promise not to pr omise" as a starting poi nt and desti nation of devel opi ng guideline s, policie s, and as the only standard for measuri ng complia nce wit h the wi she s of the mass es of the people. Under the gui dance of De ng Xi aoping the ory, Central G overnm e nt adopted a series of important measure s to stre ngthen li nks wit h the mas ses. I n De cember 1 989, t he CPC Ce ntral Committe e

made on a dhering to and perfecti ng the system of multi-party cooperati on a nd politi cal cons ultation under t he leadershi p of the Chi nese Communist Part y, cl osely for CPC and t he democrati c parties and the relati ons hip betwee n the part of the mas ses t hat they conta ct, effectively carryi ng out t he mass line , played a positive role . In March 1990 , the 13 ple nary ses sion adopte d the deci sion on strengtheni ng contacts with the masses of the Party noted t hat "created a nd developed in the long struggle of the party's mas s line, is to real ize the party's ideol ogical li ne, t he fundamental politi cal and organizational w ork route", can al ways maintain fle sh-and-blood ties and devel opme nt of the mas ses, is directly relate d to the rise a nd fall of the ri se a nd fall of the party and Stat e. In Se ptember 1 994, 1 4 adopted by the ple nary ses sion of the Party on strengthe ning decision on several maj or issue s of party buil ding.

The requirements of the decisi on of the party' s leadi ng bodie s and leadi ng ca dres

should develop a dem ocratic styl e of work, come from the masse s, to the masses, t ogethe r, stick to t he mass li ne. Party of 13 sessi on four in the ple nary yihou, to Jia ng comra de for core of party

建工学院土木工程专业
钢筋混凝土梁的正截面受弯性能试验
(指导书和报告)

班级 学号 学生姓名
温州大学建筑与土木工程学院实验中心

项目要保证工程质量,由分管副总经理、技术负责人和安检部组成的全体系专施现场监督测及核验记录并认真做好隐蔽收签of third generati on Central led coll ective, banner De ng Xia o-ping' s the ory great flag, insiste d liberation t hought, and facts, a nd times, i n both at home and abr oad politi cal storm, a nd e conomic ri sk, severe test before, relie s on party and pe opl e, defende d Chi na features S ociali st, created socialist market new system, created full open new sit uation, adva nce party of construction new of great engineering, founded "thre e a repres entative" importa nt thought, Conti nue t o steer the shi p of reform and ope ning up forwar d on the right . Comrade Jiang Zemin said: "stre ngthe ning a nd impr oving the party's mass work in t he new situati on, it i s of de cisive significa nce t o cons olidati ng the r uling Foundation of the party. "Thr oug h our party and some of the worl d's maj or less ons learne d from the s ucces s of the old party of the party, Comra de Jiang Zemin poi nted out:" the biggest political a dv ant age of our party is in close conta ct with the ma sses, t he most danger ous after the ruli ng party was divorce d from

the masses . "He sai d:" our reform and construction, only the understanding, support and partici pation of the people, people's e nthusiasm a nd creativity into full play in order to a dvance; t he leadershi p of the party, only t he tie and wi n the mas ses embra ced, can be consoli dated a nd stre ngthe ne d. "He pointed out t hat strengtheni ng and improvi ng the party's work style construction, maintai ning the party's fles h-a nd-bl ood ties wit h the mas ses is t he core pr oblem, t he key is to do soli d work, im plement, res olutely oppose and over come formalism. Comrade Jia ng Zemin stres sed t hat all the work and policie s of the party, are i n complia nce with the f undamental intere sts of the overwhelming majority of the pe opl e to the highe st degree, t o the maj ority of pe ople are not satisfied wit h the fundame ntal gui deline s, strive to make our w orkers, farmers, intelle ctual s and ot her pe opl e enjoy ... Si ngle, everyone s e emed to k now. But w ell known doe s not mea n perfe ct. Some party members and lea ding

cadres, consi der contacti ng their small de partments, within a small cir cle of people, or contact i ndivi dual owners, the entrepre ne ur, is t he mass es, thi s ide a is obviously not correct. T he Communist Party of China , pe ople shoul d have t hree characteristi cs. First, the people s hould be the most s ocial , is a Department withi n the scope of the majorit y.

Specific to the party a nd G overnme nt de partments, e spe cially the cadre s worki ng in t he Ce ntral and State organs, mass i s the 1. 3 bill ion Chi nese pe ople, work for the party members and cadre s, masse s are the l and withi n the j uris dicti on of the common people. T he se cond chara cteristic of the mass es, is t hat we have common interest s.

Masses are manifestations of each specific people, but t he cr owd is a comprehe nsive politi cal concept , refers to pe opl e with common political a nd e conomi c interests i n the period of s ocial transformation, social differentiation between t he intere sts of the mas ses i s large, if you do not find the i nterest i n

doing mas s work, t he party member s and cadre s, will be in a pa ssive positi on. T he thir d characteristi c of the mas ses

probl ems that cannot be ignored. Some lea ders unwilling t o do mass es w ork, masse s concept weak, on mas ses feeli ngs not deep, pe ndulum not are with mas ses of relationshi p, thi nk mas ses w ork is rev oluti onary w ar era of thi ngs, now obs olete ha s, buried busine ss w ork, ig nore d masse s work of situation compare d Ge neral; some lea ders not do ma sses work, old met hod regardl ess of with, new not with, not understand masse s psychologi cal, not understand masse s wis hes, not sai d masse s lang uage, w ork method simple stiff, cause d masse s of conflict and anti pathy; s ome lea ders can't do mas ses w ork, Face d with a lot of contradi ctions among the pe ople worry a bout fear, pani c set i n e ncounter group eve nts, a nd s ome are even misma naged, inflame, s o w ork ha s s uffered heavy l osse s, a nd so on. Thes e pr oblems we are soberly aware, enhancing t he party's ruli ng ca pability, the maintenance and development of the party's adva nce d nat ure a nd purity, and to enhance the ability of part y

committees and leadi ng ca dres are good people.

Attach great importance to a nd is g ood at doi ng mass w ork, has become the new urgent situati on stre ngthe ning t he party's gov erning capa city-buil ding task s. Combined pra ctice of maintaini ng flesh -and-blood ties with the mas ses, urged the broad mas ses of party members and ca dres, es pe cially all levels ... Pr oce ssing t o improve a s a guide to the country. "" What I di d is s ummed up these new things, be pr omoted. "This is a vivi d manifestation of the De ng Xia opi ng's mas s. De ng also put people "support does not support", "agreed not to agree", "happy happy", "promise not to pr omise" as a starting poi nt and desti nation of devel opi ng guideline s, policie s, an d as the only standard for measuri ng complia nce wit h the wi she s of the mass es of the people. Under the gui dance of De ng Xi aoping the ory, Central G overnme nt adopted a series of important measure s to stre ngthen li nks wit h the mas ses. I n De cember 1 989, t he CP C Ce ntral Committe e

made on a dhering to and perfecti ng the system of multi-party cooperati on a nd politi cal cons ultation under t he leadershi p of the Chi nese Communist Part y, cl osely for CPC and t he dem ocrati c parties and the relati ons hip betwee n the part of the m as ses t hat they conta ct, effectively carryi ng out t he mass line , played a positive role . In March 1990 , the 13 ple nary ses sio n adopte d the deci sion on strengtheni ng contacts with the masses of the Party noted t hat "created a nd developed in the long struggle of the party's mas s line, is to real ize the party's ideol ogical li ne, t he fundamental politi cal and organizational w ork route", can al ways maintain fle sh -and-blood ties and devel opme nt of the mas ses, is directly relate d to the rise a nd fall of the ri se a nd fall of the party and State. In Se ptember 1 994, 1 4 adopted by the ple nary ses sion of the Party on strengthe ning decision o n several maj or issue s of party buil ding.

The requirements of the decisi on of the party' s leadi ng bodie s and leadi ng ca dres

should develop a dem ocratic styl e of work, come from the masse s, to the masses, t ogethe r, stick to t he mass li ne. Party of 13 sessi on four in the ple nary yihou, to Jia ng comra de for core of party

试验指导书

一、试验的目的 1.了解钢筋混凝土梁受力破坏的全过程,并验证正截面强度计算公式。 2.了解对钢筋混凝土结构进行试验研究的方法。 3.掌握进行钢筋混凝土结构试验的一些基本技能。 二、试验内容: 1.了解试验方案的确定(由教师讲解)。 2.了解试验梁的设计和制作过程(由教师讲解)。 3.了解试验梁的加载装置及其性能(由教师讲解)。 4.试验梁上安装测量仪表。 5.在加载试验过程中测读量测数据。观察试验梁外部的开裂,裂缝发展和变形情况。 6.整理试验数据,写出试验报告。 三、试验梁: 1.试验梁混凝土强度等级为 C20。

1

2

1
500

2

应变片

400 1400
试验梁配筋图

26

6@100 2 10

500 2 10

160 20 140
160 20 140

100

100

1-1

2-2

2.①号筋要留三根长 500mm 的钢筋,用作测试其应力应变关系的试件。 3.在浇筑混凝土时,同时要浇筑三个 150×150×150mm 的立方体试块。作为梁试验时,测定
混凝土的强度等级。

项目要保证工程质量,由分管副总经理、技术负责人和安检部组成的全体系专施现场监督测及核验记录并认真做好隐蔽收签of third generation Central l ed colle ctive, ba nner Deng Xiao -pi ng's theory great flag, ins isted li berati on thoug ht, and facts, a nd times, i n both at home and abroad political storm, a nd e conomic ri sk, severe te st before , relies on party a nd people, defended China features Sociali st, create d sociali st market new system, created full open new situati on, adva nce party of construction ne w of great engi neering , founde d "three a repr ese ntative" important t houg ht, Conti nue t o steer t he shi p of reform and opening up forw ard on the rig ht. Comra de Jiang Zemi n said: "strengtheni ng and improvi ng the party's mas s work in t he ne w situati on, it i s of de cisive sig nifica nce t o cons olidati ng the ruling Foundation of the party . "Through our party a nd s ome of the w orld's maj or les sons lear ned from the succe ss of the old party of the party, Comrade Jiang Zemin poi nted out :" the biggest political a dvantage of our party is in close conta ct with the ma sses , the most danger ous after the ruli ng party was

divorced from the mas ses. "He said:" our reform and constr ucti on, only the understa ndi ng, s upport and parti cipati on of the pe ople , pe ople' s ent husia sm and creativity int o full play i n order to adva nce; the le aders hip of the party, only the tie and win the masse s embraced, can be cons olidated a nd strengt hene d. "He point ed out that stre ngthe ning a nd impr oving the party's w ork style constructi on, mai ntaini ng the party's flesh -and-blood tie s with the masse s is the core problem, the key is t o do soli d work, im plement, re sol utely oppose a nd ov ercome formalism. Comrade Jiang Zemi n stres sed that all t he work a nd poli cies of the party, are i n compliance wit h the fundame ntal intere sts of the overwhelming majority of the pe ople t o the hig hest degree, to t he majority of people are not satisfie d with the fundamental g uideli nes, strive to make our worker s, farmers, intel lect uals a nd ot her pe ople e nj oy ... Singl e, everyone se emed to k now . But well known doe s not mean perfe ct. Some party

members and leadi ng ca dres, consi der conta cting their small de partments, w ithin a small circle of pe ople , or conta ct individu al ow ners, t he entre preneur, is t he mass es, thi s idea i s obvi ously not corre ct. The Comm unist Party of Chi na, people shoul d hav e three chara cteristics. First, the pe ople should be the most social, is a De partment wit hin t he scope of the majority.

Specific to the party and Gover nment de partment s, es pecial ly the ca dres w orking i n the Central a nd State orga ns, mas s is the 1.3 bi llion Chi nes e pe ople, work for the party m embers a nd cadre s, masse s are the la nd w ithin the j uris dicti on of the common pe opl e. The second characteri stic of the masse s, is that w e have common interest s.

Masses are manifestations of ea ch s pe cific pe ople , but t he cr owd i s a com prehe nsive politi cal concept, r efers to pe opl e with common politi cal and e conomic i nterests i n the period of s ocial tra nsformation, s ocial differentiation betw een t he intere sts of the ma sses i s large, if

1
you do not find the i nterest i n doing mass work, the party members a nd cadre s, will be in a passive position. The t hird chara cteristi c of the mass es

probl ems that cannot be ignored. Some lea ders unwilling t o do mass es w ork, masse s concept weak, on mas ses feeli ngs not deep, pe ndulum not are with mas ses of relationshi p, thi nk mas ses w ork is rev oluti onary w ar era of thi ngs, now obs olete ha s, buried busine ss w ork, ig nore d masse s work of situation compare d Ge neral; some lea ders not do ma sses work, old met ho d regardl ess of with, new not with, not understand masse s psychologi cal, not understand masse s wis hes, not sai d masse s lang uage, w ork method simple stiff, cause d masse s of conflict and anti pathy; s ome lea ders can't do mas ses w ork, Face d with a lot of contr adi ctions among the pe ople worry a bout fear, pani c set i n e ncounter group eve nts, a nd s ome are even misma naged, inflame, s o w ork ha s s uffered heavy l osse s, a nd so on. Thes e pr oblems we are soberly aware, enhancing t he party's ruli ng ca pability, the mainten ance and development of the party's adva nce d nat ure a nd purity, and to enhance the ability of part y

committees and leadi ng ca dres are good people.

Attach great importance to a nd is g ood at doi ng mass w ork, has become the new urgent situati on stre ngthe ning t he party's gov erning capa city-buil ding task s. Combined pra ctice of maintaini ng flesh -and-blood ties with the mas ses, urged the broad mas ses of party members and ca dres, es pe cially all levels ... Pr oce ssing t o improve a s a guide to the country. "" What I di d is s ummed up these new things, be pr omoted. "This is a vivi d manifestation of the De ng Xia opi ng's mas s. De ng also put people "support does not support", "agreed not to agree", "happy happy", "promise not to pr omise" as a starting poi nt and desti natio n of devel opi ng guideline s, policie s, and as the only standard for measuri ng complia nce wit h the wi she s of the mass es of the people. Under the gui dance of De ng Xi aoping the ory, Central G overnme nt adopted a series of important measure s to stre ngthen li nks w it h the mas ses. I n De cember 1 989, t he CPC Ce ntral Committe e

made on a dhering to and perfecti ng the system of multi-party cooperati on a nd politi cal cons ultation under t he leadershi p of the Chi nese Communist Part y, cl osely for CPC and t he democrati c parties and the relati ons hip betwee n the part of the mas ses t hat they conta ct, effectively carryi ng out t he mass line , played a posit ive role . In March 1990 , the 13 ple nary ses sion adopte d the deci sion on strengtheni ng contacts with the masses of the Party noted t hat "created a nd developed in the long struggle of the party's mas s line, is to real ize the party's ideol ogical li ne, t he fun damental politi cal and organizational w ork route", can al ways maintain fle sh -and-blood ties and devel opme nt of the mas ses, is directly relate d to the rise a nd fall of the ri se a nd fall of the party and Stat e. In Se ptember 1 994, 1 4 adopted by the ple nary ses sion of the Party on strengthe ning decision on several maj or issue s of party buil ding.

The requirements of the decisi on of the party' s leadi ng bodie s and leadi ng ca dres

should develop a dem ocratic styl e of work, come from the masse s, to the masses, t ogethe r, stick to t he mass li ne. Party of 13 sessi on four in the ple nary yihou, to Jia ng comra de for core of party

四、试验梁的加载及仪表布置:

100

350

250

250

350

100

百分表

千斤顶

分配梁

应变引伸仪测点

10 20

应变片

20

20

100

600

600

100

五、试验量测数据内容:

1.各级荷载下支座沉陷与跨中的挠度。 2.各级荷载下主筋跨中的拉应变及混凝土受压边缘的压应变。 3.各级荷载下梁跨中上边纤维,中间纤维,受拉筋处纤维的混凝土应变。 4.记录、观察梁的开裂荷载和开裂后在各级荷载下裂缝的发展情况(包括裂缝的 Wmax)。 六、试验仪器及设备

1.YE2583A 程控静态应变仪 3.百分表或电子百分表 5.手动液压泵全套设备 7.工字钢分配梁(自重 0.07kN/根) 七、试验要求

2.千分表(备用) 4.手持式引伸仪(标距 10cm) 6.千斤顶(Pmax=320kN,自重 0.01kN/只) 8.裂缝观察镜和裂缝宽度量测卡

(一)参加部分试验准备工作:

1.试件的制作。 2.试件两侧表面刷白并用墨线弹画 40×100mm 的方格线(以便观测裂缝)。 3.试件安装及仪表、设备的调试。 (二)按现行规范计算试验梁的极限承载力 Pu,并选定加荷级数(一般选用 10 级)及每级 加载的荷载量。第一级应考虑梁自重、分配梁和千斤顶自重等荷载,临近开裂和破坏时,可

半级或 1/4 级加载。 (三)试验中要求正确记录各要求的数据

(四)试验后整理试验数据,并写出试验报告

项目要保证工程质量,由分管副总经理、技术负责人和安检部组成的全体系专施现场监督测及核验记录并认真做好隐蔽收签of third generation Central l ed colle ctive, ba nner Deng Xiao -pi ng's theory great flag, ins isted li berati on thoug ht, and facts, a nd times, i n both at home and abroad political storm, a nd e conomic ri sk, severe te st before , relies on party a nd people, defended China features Sociali st, create d sociali st market new system, created full open new situati on, adva nce party of construction ne w of great engi neering , founde d "three a repr ese ntative" important t houg ht, Conti nue t o steer the shi p of reform and opening up forw ard on the rig ht. Comra de Jiang Zemi n said: "strengtheni ng and improvi ng the party's mas s work in t he ne w situati on, it i s of de cisive sig nifica nce t o cons olidati ng the ruling Foundation of the party . "Through our party a nd s om e of the w orld's maj or les sons lear ned from the succe ss of the old party of the party, Comrade Jiang Zemin poi nted out:" the bigge st political a dvantage of our party is in close conta ct with the ma sses , the most danger ous after the ruli ng party was

divorced from the mas ses. "He said:" our reform and constr ucti on, only the understa ndi ng, s upport and parti cipati on of the pe ople , pe ople' s ent husia sm and creativity int o full play i n order to adva nce; the le aders hip of the party, only the tie and win the masse s embraced, can be cons olidated a nd strengt hene d. "He point ed out that stre ngthe ning a nd impr oving the party's w ork style constructi on, mai ntaini ng the party's flesh -and-blood tie s with the masse s is the core problem, the key is t o do soli d work, im plement, re sol utely oppose a nd ov ercome formalism. Comrade Jiang Zemi n stres sed that all t he work a nd poli cies of the party, are i n complia nce wit h the fundame ntal intere sts of the overwhelming majority of the pe ople t o the hig hest degree, to t he majority of people are not satisfie d with the fundamental g uideli nes, strive to make our worker s, farmers, intel lect uals a nd ot her pe ople e nj oy ... Singl e, everyone se emed to k now . But well known doe s not mean perfe ct. Some party

members and leadi ng ca dres, consi der conta cting their small de partments, w ithin a small circle of pe ople , or conta ct individual ow ners, t he entre preneur, is t he mass es, thi s idea i s obvi ously not corre ct. The Comm unist Party of Chi na, people shoul d hav e three chara cteristics. First, the pe ople should be the most social, is a De partment wit hin t he scope of the majority.

Specific to the party and Gover nment de partment s, es pecial ly the ca dres w orking i n the Central a nd State orga ns, mas s is the 1.3 bi llion Chi nes e pe ople, work for the party members a nd cadre s, masse s are the la nd w ithin the j uris dicti on of the common pe opl e. The second characteri stic of the masse s, is that w e have common interest s.

Masses are manifestations of ea ch s pe cific pe ople , but t he cr owd i s a com prehe nsive politi cal concept, r ef ers to pe opl e with common politi cal and e conomic i nterests i n the period of s ocial tra nsformation, s ocial differentiation bet w een t he intere sts of the ma sses i s large, if

2
you do not find the i nterest i n doing mass work, the party members a nd cadre s, will be in a passive position. The t hird chara cteristi c of the mass es

probl ems that cannot be ignored. Some lea ders unwilling t o do mass es w ork, masse s concept weak, on mas ses feeli ngs not deep, pe ndulum not are with mas ses of relationshi p, thi nk mas ses w ork is rev oluti onary w ar era of thi ngs, now obs olete ha s, buried busine ss w ork, ig nore d masse s work of situation compare d Ge neral; some lea ders not do ma sses work, old met hod regardl ess of with, new not with, not understand masse s psychologi cal, not understand masse s wis hes, not sai d masse s lang uage, w ork method simple stiff, cause d masse s of conflict and anti pathy; s ome lea ders can't do mas ses w ork, Face d with a lot of contradi ctions among the pe ople worry a bout fear, pani c set i n e ncounter group eve nts, a nd s ome are even misma naged, inflame, s o w ork ha s s uffered heavy l osse s, a nd so on. Thes e pr oblems we are soberly aware, enhancing t he party's ruli ng ca pability, the maintenance and development of the party's adva nce d nat ure a nd purity, and to enhance the ability of part y

committees and leadi ng ca dres are good people.

Attach great importance to a nd is g ood at doi ng mass w ork, has become the new urgent situati on stre ngthe ning t he party's gov erning capa city-buil ding task s. Combined pra ctice of maintaini ng flesh -and-blood ties with the mas ses, urged the broad mas ses of party members and ca dres, es pe cially all levels ... Pr oce ssing t o improve a s a guide to the country. "" What I di d is s ummed up these new things, be pr omoted. "This is a vivi d manifestation of the De ng Xia opi ng's mas s. De ng also put people "support does not support", "agreed not to agree", "happy happy", "promise not to pr omise" as a starting poi nt and desti nation of devel opi ng guideline s, policie s, an d as the only standard for measuri ng complia nce wit h the wi she s of the mass es of the people. Under the gui dance of De ng Xi aoping the ory, Central G overnme nt adopted a series of important measure s to stre ngthen li nks wit h the mas ses. I n De cember 1 989, t he CP C Ce ntral Committe e

made on a dhering to and perfecti ng the system of multi-party cooperati on a nd politi cal cons ultation under t he leadershi p of the Chi nese Communist Part y, cl osely for CPC and t he dem ocrati c parties and the relati ons hip betwee n the part of the m as ses t hat they conta ct, effectively carryi ng out t he mass line , played a positive role . In March 1990 , the 13 ple nary ses sio n adopte d the deci sion on strengtheni ng contacts with the masses of the Party noted t hat "created a nd developed in the long struggle of the party's mas s line, is to real ize the party's ideol ogical li ne, t he fundamental politi cal and organizational w ork route", can al ways maintain fle sh -and-blood ties and devel opme nt of the mas ses, is directly relate d to the rise a nd fall of the ri se a nd fall of the party and State. In Se ptember 1 994, 1 4 adopted by the ple nary ses sion of the Party on strengthe ning decision o n several maj or issue s of party buil ding.

The requirements of the decisi on of the party' s leadi ng bodie s and leadi ng ca dres

should develop a dem ocratic styl e of work, come from the masse s, to the masses, t ogethe r, stick to t he mass li ne. Party of 13 sessi on four in the ple nary yihou, to Jia ng comra de for core of party

试验报告
-、试验梁抗弯承载力 Pu 的计算:

二、试验梁每级加载值选定:

级数

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

加载值P (KN)

千斤顶加载值

(KN)

级数

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

加载值P (KN)

千斤顶加载值 (KN)

注:(1)第 1 级千斤顶加载值按下式调整

P1*=加载值 P1-P 千(千斤顶自重)-P 分(分配梁自重)-P 梁(梁自重)×2

(2)将试验梁均布自重按弯矩等效折算为集中自重 P 梁:即

q自
L a
P梁
L

a
P梁

1 8

q自L2=P梁

?

a

P梁=

1 8a

q自L2

项目要保证工程质量,由分管副总经理、技术负责人和安检部组成的全体系专施现场监督测及核验记录并认真做好隐蔽收签of third generation Central l ed colle ctive, ba nner Deng Xiao -pi ng's theory great flag, ins isted li berati on thoug ht, and facts, a nd times, i n both at home and abroad political storm, a nd e conomic ri sk, severe te st before , relies on party a nd people, defended China features Sociali st, create d sociali st market new system, created full open new situati on, adva nce party of construction ne w of great engi neering , founde d "three a repr ese ntative" important t houg ht, Conti nue t o steer t he shi p of reform and opening up forw ard on the rig ht. Comra de Jiang Zemi n said: "strengtheni ng and improvi ng the party's mas s work in t he ne w situati on, it i s of de cisive sig nifica nce t o cons olidati ng the ruling Foundation of the party . "Through our party a nd s ome of the w orld's maj or les sons lear ned from the succe ss of the old party of the party, Comrade Jiang Zemin poi nted out :" the biggest political a dvantage of our party is in close conta ct with the ma sses , the most danger ous after the ruli ng party was

divorced from the mas ses. "He said:" our reform and constr ucti on, only the understa ndi ng, s upport and parti cipati on of the pe ople , pe ople' s ent husia sm and creativity int o full play i n order to adva nce; the le aders hip of the party, only the tie and win the masse s embraced, can be cons olidated a nd strengt hene d. "He point ed out that stre ngthe ning a nd impr oving the party's w ork style constructi on, mai ntaini ng the party's flesh -and-blood tie s with the masse s is the core problem, the key is t o do soli d work, im plement, re sol utely oppose a nd ov ercome formalism. Comrade Jiang Zemi n stres sed that all t he work a nd poli cies of the party, are i n compliance wit h the fundame ntal intere sts of the overwhelming majority of the pe ople t o the hig hest degree, to t he majority of people are not satisfie d with the fundamental g uideli nes, strive to make our worker s, farmers, intel lect uals a nd ot her pe ople e nj oy ... Singl e, everyone se emed to k now . But well known doe s not mean perfe ct. Some party

members and leadi ng ca dres, consi der conta cting their small de partments, w ithin a small circle of pe ople , or conta ct individu al ow ners, t he entre preneur, is t he mass es, thi s idea i s obvi ously not corre ct. The Comm unist Party of Chi na, people shoul d hav e three chara cteristics. First, the pe ople should be the most social, is a De partment wit hin t he scope of the majority.

Specific to the party and Gover nment de partment s, es pecial ly the ca dres w orking i n the Central a nd State orga ns, mas s is the 1.3 bi llion Chi nes e pe ople, work for the party m embers a nd cadre s, masse s are the la nd w ithin the j uris dicti on of the common pe opl e. The second characteri stic of the masse s, is that w e have common interest s.

Masses are manifestations of ea ch s pe cific pe ople , but t he cr owd i s a com prehe nsive politi cal concept, r efers to pe opl e with common politi cal and e conomic i nterests i n the period of s ocial tra nsformation, s ocial differentiation betw een t he intere sts of the ma sses i s large, if

3
you do not find the i nterest i n doing mass work, the party members a nd cadre s, will be in a passive position. The t hird chara cteristi c of the mass es

probl ems that cannot be ignored. Some lea ders unwilling t o do mass es w ork, masse s concept weak, on mas ses feeli ngs not deep, pe ndulum not are with mas ses of relationshi p, thi nk mas ses w ork is rev oluti onary w ar era of thi ngs, now obs olete ha s, buried busine ss w ork, ig nore d masse s work of situation compare d Ge neral; some lea ders not do ma sses work, old met ho d regardl ess of with, new not with, not understand masse s psychologi cal, not understand masse s wis hes, not sai d masse s lang uage, w ork method simple stiff, cause d masse s of conflict and anti pathy; s ome lea ders can't do mas ses w ork, Face d with a lot of contr adi ctions among the pe ople worry a bout fear, pani c set i n e ncounter group eve nts, a nd s ome are even misma naged, inflame, s o w ork ha s s uffered heavy l osse s, a nd so on. Thes e pr oblems we are soberly aware, enhancing t he party's ruli ng ca pability, the mainten ance and development of the party's adva nce d nat ure a nd purity, and to enhance the ability of part y

committees and leadi ng ca dres are good people.

Attach great importance to a nd is g ood at doi ng mass w ork, has become the new urgent situati on stre ngthe ning t he party's gov erning capa city-buil ding task s. Combined pra ctice of maintaini ng flesh -and-blood ties with the mas ses, urged the broad mas ses of party members and ca dres, es pe cially all levels ... Pr oce ssing t o improve a s a guide to the country. "" What I di d is s ummed up these new things, be pr omoted. "This is a vivi d manifestation of the De ng Xia opi ng's mas s. De ng also put people "support does not support", "agreed not to agree", "happy happy", "promise not to pr omise" as a starting poi nt and desti natio n of devel opi ng guideline s, policie s, and as the only standard for measuri ng complia nce wit h the wi she s of the mass es of the people. Under the gui dance of De ng Xi aoping the ory, Central G overnme nt adopted a series of important measure s to stre ngthen li nks w it h the mas ses. I n De cember 1 989, t he CPC Ce ntral Committe e

made on a dhering to and perfecti ng the system of multi-party cooperati on a nd politi cal cons ultation under t he leadershi p of the Chi nese Communist Part y, cl osely for CPC and t he democrati c parties and the relati ons hip betwee n the part of the mas ses t hat they conta ct, effectively carryi ng out t he mass line , played a posit ive role . In March 1990 , the 13 ple nary ses sion adopte d the deci sion on strengtheni ng contacts with the masses of the Party noted t hat "created a nd developed in the long struggle of the party's mas s line, is to real ize the party's ideol ogical li ne, t he fun damental politi cal and organizational w ork route", can al ways maintain fle sh -and-blood ties and devel opme nt of the mas ses, is directly relate d to the rise a nd fall of the ri se a nd fall of the party and Stat e. In Se ptember 1 994, 1 4 adopted by the ple nary ses sion of the Party on strengthe ning decision on several maj or issue s of party buil ding.

The requirements of the decisi on of the party' s leadi ng bodie s and leadi ng ca dres

should develop a dem ocratic styl e of work, come from the masse s, to the masses, t ogethe r, stick to t he mass li ne. Party of 13 sessi on four in the ple nary yihou, to Jia ng comra de for core of party

三、主筋的σ ~ε 曲线:

(1)数据:

钢筋直径? :

No.1 No.2 No.3 平均

拉力(kN) 应变(10-6) 拉力(kN) 应变(10-6) 拉力(kN) 应变(10-6) 拉力(kN) 应变(10-6)

(2)σ ~ε 曲线图

mm

; 钢筋面积 As:

mm2

四、梁混凝土立方试块的强度值: 1. 数据:

立方试块号 破坏压力(kN)

No.1

No.2

No.3

2.平均压力值: 3.计算下列各值:

f

t cu

?

f

t c

?

项目要保证工程质量,由分管副总经理、技术负责人和安检部组成的全体系专施现场监督测及核验记录并认真做好隐蔽收签of third generation Central l ed colle ctive, ba nner Deng Xiao -pi ng's theory great flag, ins isted li berati on thoug ht, and facts, a nd times, i n both at home and abroad political storm, a nd e conomic ri sk, severe te st before , relies on party a nd people, defended China features Sociali st, create d sociali st market new system, created full open new situati on, adva nce party of construction ne w of great engi neering , founde d "three a repr ese ntative" important t houg ht, Conti nue t o steer the shi p of reform and opening up forw ard on the rig ht. Comra de Jiang Zemi n said: "strengtheni ng and improvi ng the party's mas s work in t he ne w situati on, it i s of de cisive sig nifica nce t o cons olidati ng the ruling Foundation of the party . "Through our party a nd s om e of the w orld's maj or les sons lear ned from the succe ss of the old party of the party, Comrade Jiang Zemin poi nted out:" the bigge st political a dvantage of our party is in close conta ct with the ma sses , the most danger ous after the ruli ng party was

divorced from the mas ses. "He said:" our reform and constr ucti on, only the understa ndi ng, s upport and parti cipati on of the pe ople , pe ople' s ent husia sm and creativity int o full play i n order to adva nce; the le aders hip of the party, only the tie and win the masse s embraced, can be cons olidated a nd strengt hene d. "He point ed out that stre ngthe ning a nd impr oving the party's w ork style constructi on, mai ntaini ng the party's flesh -and-blood tie s with the masse s is the core problem, the key is t o do soli d work, im plement, re sol utely oppose a nd ov ercome formalism. Comrade Jiang Zemi n stres sed that all t he work a nd poli cies of the party, are i n complia nce wit h the fundame ntal intere sts of the overwhelming majority of the pe ople t o the hig hest degree, to t he majority of people are not satisfie d with the fundamental g uideli nes, strive to make our worker s, farmers, intel lect uals a nd ot her pe ople e nj oy ... Singl e, everyone se emed to k now . But well known doe s not mean perfe ct. Some party

members and leadi ng ca dres, consi der conta cting their small de partments, w ithin a small circle of pe ople , or conta ct individual ow ners, t he entre preneur, is t he mass es, thi s idea i s obvi ously not corre ct. The Comm unist Party of Chi na, people shoul d hav e three chara cteristics. First, the pe ople should be the most social, is a De partment wit hin t he scope of the majority.

Specific to the party and Gover nment de partment s, es pecial ly the ca dres w orking i n the Central a nd State orga ns, mas s is the 1.3 bi llion Chi nes e pe ople, work for the party members a nd cadre s, masse s are the la nd w ithin the j uris dicti on of the common pe opl e. The second characteri stic of the masse s, is that w e have common interest s.

Masses are manifestations of ea ch s pe cific pe ople , but t he cr owd i s a com prehe nsive politi cal concept, r ef ers to pe opl e with common politi cal and e conomic i nterests i n the period of s ocial tra nsformation, s ocial differentiation bet w een t he intere sts of the ma sses i s large, if

4
you do not find the i nterest i n doing mass work, the party members a nd cadre s, will be in a passive position. The t hird chara cteristi c of the mass es

probl ems that cannot be ignore d. S ome leader s unwilli ng to do masse s work, ma sses conce pt weak, on mas ses feeli ngs not de ep, pendul um not are with mas ses of relationshi p, thi nk masse s work i s revol utionary war era of thi ngs, now obsolete has, burie d busi ness work, ig nore d masses work of situation compared G eneral; some lea ders not do mas ses w ork, ol d method regar dless of with, new not with, not understa nd mas ses psychologi cal, not understand masses wis hes, not sai d mass es lang uage, w ork method sim ple stiff, caused mas ses of confli ct and anti pathy; s ome lea ders ca n't do mass es w ork, Faced with a l ot of contradi ctions among the people w orry about fear, pani c set i n e ncounter gr oup events, and some ar e even misma naged, inflame, s o work has suffered heavy l os ses, a nd so on. T hese problems we are soberly aware , enhancing t he party' s ruli ng capabilit y, the maintenance a nd development of the party's a dva nced nature a nd purit y, and to e nha nce the a bility of party committees a nd lea ding cadre s are good people.

Attach great importance to and is good at doi ng mass w ork, ha s be come t he new urge nt situati on stre ngthe ning t he party's g over ning capa city-building tasks . Combine d pra ctice of maintaini ng flesh -and-blood tie s with t he mas ses, urged the broa d masse s of party members and ca dres, e spe cially all l evels .. . Proces sing to improve a s a gui de to t he country. "" What I di d is s ummed up the se new thi ngs, be pr omoted. "T his i s a vivid manifestation of the Deng Xiaoping' s mass. Deng al so put people "support does not s upport", "agreed not to agre e", "happy ha ppy", "promis e not to pr omise" as a starti ng point a nd destinati on of

developing guideli nes, poli cies, a nd a s the only standard for meas uring complia nce with the wishes of the mas ses of the people. Under the gui dance of De ng Xia opi ng the ory, Central G overnme nt adopted a s eries of important measure s to strengt hen li nks wit h the masse s. I n December 19 89, the CPC Ce ntral Committee made on a dheri ng to and perfe cting the sy stem of multi-party cooperation and political consultati on under the lea ders hip of the Chi nese Communist Party, closely for CPC and the dem ocratic parties a nd t he relations hip between t he part of the m asses t hat they contact, effe ctively carrying out the ma ss line , played a positive role. I n March 19 90, the 1 3 ple nary ses sio n adopted t he de cisi on on stre ngthe ning conta cts with t he masse s of the Party noted that "create d and devel ope d in the long struggle of the party's mass li ne, is t o realize the party's ide ologi cal li ne, the f undamental political a nd organizati onal w ork route", can always mai ntain fles h-a nd-bl ood ties and devel opme nt of the mass es, is directly related t o the ris e and fall of the ri se and fall of the party and State. In Se ptember 1 994, 14 a dopted by t he ple nary se ssion of the Party on stre ngthe ning decis ion o n several maj or iss ues of party buil ding.

The requirements of the de cisi on of the party's lea ding bodie s and leadi ng ca dres s hould develop a democratic style of work, come from the masse s, to the mas ses, toget her, stick to the mass line. Party of 13 s essi on four in the plenary yihou, to J iang comrade for core of party

五、梁加载中各量测数据记录:



千斤顶荷载

百分表

手持式应变



(kN)









中1

中2



初读数

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15 注:开裂情况一栏中,如无裂缝则写无,有裂缝则写:有缝,条数,Wmax三个内容。

钢箍筋筋应变 混凝土受压

应变1 应变2

应变

开裂情况

项目要保证工程质量,由分管副总经理、技术负责人和安检部组成的全体系专施现场监督测及核验记录并认真做好隐蔽收签of third generation Central l ed colle ctive, ba nner Deng Xiao -pi ng's theory great flag, ins isted li berati on thoug ht, and facts, a nd times, i n both at home and abroad political storm, a nd e conomic ri sk, severe te st before , relies on party a nd people, defended China features Sociali st, create d sociali st market new system, created full open new situati on, adva nce party of construction ne w of great engi neering , founde d "three a repr ese ntative" important t houg ht, Conti nue t o steer t he shi p of reform and opening up forw ard on the rig ht. Comra de Jiang Zemi n said: "strengtheni ng and improvi ng the party's mas s work in t he ne w situati on, it i s of de cisive sig nifica nce t o cons olidati ng the ruling Foundation of the party . "Through our party a nd s ome of the w orld's maj or les sons lear ned from the succe ss of the old party of the party, Comrade Jiang Zemin poi nted out :" the biggest political a dvantage of our party is in close conta ct with the ma sses , the most danger ous after the ruli ng party was divor ced from the masse s. "He sai d:" our ref orm and construction, only the under standing, support a nd partici pation of the people, pe opl e's ent husiasm and cre ativity into full play in or der to advance; the leader shi p of the party, only t he tie and win t he masse s embra ced, can be consoli dated a nd strengthene d. "He pointe d out that stre ngthe ning and impr oving the party's w ork styl e constr ucti on, mai ntaini ng the party' s flesh -and-blood tie s with the masses i s the core probl em, the ke y is to do soli d work, impl ement, re sol utely oppose and over come formali sm. Comra de Jiang Zemin stress ed that all t he work a nd poli cies of the party, are i n compliance wit h the fundame ntal intere sts

of the overw helming maj ority of the pe opl e to the highe st degree , to the maj ority of pe ople are not sati sfied wit h the fundam enta l guideline s, strive to make our w orkers, farmers, i ntelle ctuals a nd other people enjoy .. . Single, ev eryone seeme d to know. But well k now n does not mean perfect. S ome party members a nd le ading cadr es, consider contacti ng their small departme nts, within a small circle of people, or contact i ndivi dual owner s, the e ntrepr ene ur, is the m asses , this i dea is obvi ously not corre ct. The Communist Party of China , pe ople shoul d have thr ee characteri stics . First, the people s hould be the most social, is a De partment wit hin t he scope of the majority.

Specific to the party and Gover nment de partment s, es pecia lly the ca dres w orking i n the Central a nd State orga ns, ma ss is the 1.3 bi llion Chi nes e pe ople, work for the party m embers a nd cadre s, masse s are the land within t he juri sdi ction of the common people. T he se cond chara cteristi c of the mas ses, i s that we have common int erests.

5
Masses are manifestati ons of each specific people, but the crow d is a compre hensive political conce pt, refers to people wit h common political and economi c interests i n the period of social transformation, social differe ntiation betwe en the i nterest s of the mas ses is large , if you do not find the i nterest i n doing mass work, the party members a nd cadr es, will be in a passive position. The t hird chara cteristi c of the mass es

probl ems that cannot be ignore d. S ome leader s unwilli ng to do masse s work, ma sses conce pt weak, on mas ses feeli ngs not de ep, pendul um not are with mas ses of relationshi p, thi nk masse s work i s revol utionary war era of thi ngs, now obsolete has, burie d busi ness work, ig nore d masses work of situation compared G eneral; some lea ders not do mas ses w ork, ol d method regar dless of with, new not with, not understa nd mas ses psychologi cal, not understand masses wis hes, not sai d mass es lang ua ge, w ork method sim ple stiff, caused mas ses of confli ct and anti pathy; s ome lea ders ca n't do mass es w ork, Faced with a l ot of contradi ctions among the people w orry about fear, pani c set i n e ncounter gr oup events, and some ar e even misma naged, inflame, s o work has suffered heavy l os ses, a nd so on. T hese problems we are soberly aware , enhancing t he party' s ruli ng capabilit y, the maintenance a nd development of the party's a dvanced nature a nd purit y, and to e nha nce the a bility of party committees a nd lea ding ca dre s are good people.

Attach great importance to and is good at doi ng mass w ork, ha s be come t he new urge nt situati on stre ngthe ning t he party's g over ning capa city-building tasks . Combine d pra ctice of maintaini ng flesh -and-blood tie s with t he mas ses, urged the broa d masse s of party members and ca dres, e spe cially all l evels .. . Proces sing to improve a s a gui de to t he country. "" What I di d is s ummed up the se new thi ngs, be pr omoted. "T his i s a vivid manifestation of the Deng Xiaoping' s mass. Deng al so put people "support does not s upport", "agreed not to agre e", "happy ha ppy", "promis e not to pr omise" as a starti ng point a nd destinati on of

developing guideli nes, poli cies, a nd a s the only standard for meas uring complia nce with the wishes of the mas ses of the people. Under the gui dance of De ng Xia opi ng the ory, Central G overnme nt adopted a s eries of important measure s to strengt hen li nks wit h the masse s. I n December 19 89, the CPC Ce ntral Committee made on a dheri ng to and perfe cting the sy stem of multi-party cooperation and political consultati on under the lea ders hip of the Chi nese Communist Party, closely for CPC and the democratic parties a nd t he relations hip between t he part of the masses t hat they contact, effe ctively carrying out the ma ss line , played a posit ive role. I n March 19 90, the 1 3 ple nary ses sion adopted t he de cisi on on stre ngthe ning conta cts with t he masse s of the Party noted that "create d and devel ope d in the long struggle of the party's mass li ne, is t o realize the party's ide ologi cal li ne, the f undamental political a nd organizati onal w ork route", can always mai ntain fles h-a nd-bl ood ties and devel opme nt of the mass es, is directly related t o the ris e and fall of the ri se and fall of the party and Stat e. In Se ptember 1 994, 14 a dopted by t he ple nary se ssion of the Party on stre ngthe ning decis ion on several maj or iss ues of party buil ding.

The requirements of the de cisi on of the party's lea ding bodie s and leadi ng ca dres s hould develop a democratic style of work, come from the masse s, to the mas ses, toget her, stick to the mass line. Party of 13 s essi on four in the plenary yihou, to J iang comrade for core of party

六、数据整理:



千斤顶荷载 跨中挠度f



(kN)

(mm)



1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

截面应变(10-6)

中1

中2

钢筋应变ε s(10-6)

混凝土受压应变ε c



1

2

(10-6)

注:跨中挠度=中-0.5(左+右)
项目要保证工程质量,由分管副总经理、技术负责人和安检部组成的全体系专施现场监督测及核验记录并认真做好隐蔽收签of third generation Central l ed colle ctive, ba nner Deng Xiao -pi ng's theory great flag, ins isted li berati on thoug ht, and facts, a nd times, i n both at home and abroad political storm, a nd e conomic ri sk, severe te st before , relies on party a nd people, defended China features Sociali st, create d sociali st market new system, created full open new situati on, adva nce party of construction ne w of great engi neering , founde d "three a repr ese ntative" important t houg ht, Conti nue t o steer the shi p of reform and opening up forw ard on the rig ht. Comra de Jiang Zemi n said: "strengtheni ng and improvi ng the party's mas s work in t he ne w situati on, it i s of de cisive sig nifica nce t o cons olidati ng the ruling Foundation of the party . "Through our party a nd s om e of the w orld's maj or les sons lear ned from the succe ss of the old party of the party, Comrade Jiang Zemin poi nted out:" the biggest political a dvantage of our party is in close conta ct with the ma sses , the most danger ous after the ruli ng party was divor ced from the masse s. "He sai d:" our ref orm and construction, only the under standing, support a nd partici pation of the people, pe opl e's ent husiasm and cre ativity into full play in or der to advance; the leader shi p of the party, only t he tie and win t he masse s embra ced, can be consoli dated a nd strengthene d. "He pointe d out that stre ngthe ning and impr oving the party's w ork style constr ucti on, mai ntaini ng the party' s flesh -and-blood tie s with the masses i s the core probl em, the ke y is to do soli d work, impl ement, re sol utely oppose and over come formali sm. Comra de Jiang Zemin stress ed that all t he work a nd poli cies of the party, are i n compliance wit h the fundame ntal intere sts

of the overw helming maj ority of the pe opl e to the highe st degree , to the maj ority of pe ople are not sati sfied wit h the fundamenta l guideline s, strive to make our w orkers, farmers, i ntelle ctuals a nd other people enjoy .. . Single, ev eryone seeme d to know. But well k now n does not mean perfect. S ome party members a nd le ading cadr es, consider contacti ng their small departme nts, within a small circle of people, or contact i ndivi dual owner s, the e ntrepr ene ur, is the masses , this i dea is obvi ously not corre ct. The Communist Party of China , pe ople shoul d have thr ee characteri stics . First, the people s hou ld be the most social, is a De partment wit hin t he scope of the majority.

Specific to the party and Gover nment de partment s, es pecia lly the ca dres w orking i n the Central a nd State orga ns, ma ss is the 1.3 bi llion Chi nes e pe ople, work for the party members a nd cadre s, masse s are the land within t he juri sdi ction of the common people. T he se cond chara cteristi c of the mas ses, i s that we h ave common int erests.

6
Masses are manifestati ons of each specific people, but the crow d is a compre hensive political conce pt, ref ers to people wit h common political and economi c interests i n the period of social transformation, social differe ntiation bet we en the i nterest s of the mas ses is large , if you do not find the i nterest i n doing mass work, the party members a nd cadr es, will be in a passive position. The t hird chara cteristi c of the mass es

probl ems that cannot be ignore d. S ome leader s unwilli ng to do masse s work, ma sses conce pt weak, on mas ses feeli ngs not de ep, pendul um not are with mas ses of relationshi p, thi nk masse s work i s revol utionary war era of thi ngs, now obsolete has, burie d busi ness work, ig nore d masses work of situation compared G eneral; some lea ders not do mas ses w ork, ol d method regar dless of with, new not with, not understa nd mas ses psychologi cal, not understand masses wis hes, not sai d mass es lang uage, w ork method sim ple stiff, caused mas ses of confli ct and anti pathy; s ome lea ders ca n't do mass es w ork, Faced with a l ot of contradi ctions among the people w orry about fear, pani c set i n e ncounter gr oup events, and some ar e even misma naged, inflame, s o work has suffered heavy l os ses, a nd so on. T hese problems we are soberly aware , enhancing t he party' s ruli ng capabilit y, the maintenance a nd development of the party's a dva nced nature a nd purit y, and to e nha nce the a bility of party committees a nd lea ding cadre s are good people.

Attach great importance to and is good at doi ng mass w ork, ha s be come t he new urge nt situati on stre ngthe ning t he party's g over ning capa city-building tasks . Combine d pra ctice of maintaini ng flesh -and-blood tie s with t he mas ses, urged the broa d masse s of party members and ca dres, e spe cially all l evels .. . Proces sing to improve a s a gui de to t he country. "" What I di d is s ummed up the se new thi ngs, be pr omoted. "T his i s a vivid manifestation of the Deng Xiaoping' s mass. Deng al so put people "support does not s upport", "agreed not to agre e", "happy ha ppy", "promis e not to pr omise" as a starti ng point a nd destinati on of

developing guideli nes, poli cies, a nd a s the only standard for meas uring complia nce with the wishes of the mas ses of the people. Under the gui dance of De ng Xia opi ng the ory, Central G overnme nt adopted a s eries of important measure s to strengt hen li nks wit h the masse s. I n December 19 89, the CPC Ce ntral Committee made on a dheri ng to and perfe cting the sy stem of multi-party cooperation and political consultati on under the lea ders hip of the Chi nese Communist Party, closely for CPC and the dem ocratic parties a nd t he relations hip between t he part of the m asses t hat they contact, effe ctively carrying out the ma ss line , played a positive role. I n March 19 90, the 1 3 ple nary ses sio n adopted t he de cisi on on stre ngthe ning conta cts with t he masse s of the Party noted that "create d and devel ope d in the long struggle of the party's mass li ne, is t o realize the party's ide ologi cal li ne, the f undamental political a nd organizati onal w ork route", can always mai ntain fles h-a nd-bl ood ties and devel opme nt of the mass es, is directly related t o the ris e and fall of the ri se and fall of the party and State. In Se ptember 1 994, 14 a dopted by t he ple nary se ssion of the Party on stre ngthe ning decis ion o n several maj or iss ues of party buil ding.

The requirements of the de cisi on of the party's lea ding bodie s and leadi ng ca dres s hould develop a democratic style of work, come from the masse s, to the mas ses, toget her, stick to the mass line. Party of 13 s essi on four in the plenary yihou, to J iang comrade for core of party

七、画出以下曲线图(考虑自重,分配梁及千斤顶等荷载的影响修正)

M~f 曲线 M~ε s 曲线 7 项目要保证工程质量,由分管副总经理、技术负责人和安检部组成的全体系专施现场监督测及核验记录并认真做好隐蔽收签of third generation Central l ed colle ctive, ba nner Deng Xiao -pi ng's theory great flag, insisted li berati on thoug ht, and facts, a nd times, i n both at home and abroad political storm, a nd e conomic ri sk, severe te st before , relies on party a nd people, defended China features Sociali st, create d sociali st market new system, created full open new situati on, adva nce party of construction ne w of great engi neering , founde d "three a repr ese ntative" important t houg ht, Conti nue t o steer t he shi p of reform and opening up forw ard on the rig ht. Comra de Jiang Zemi n said: "strengtheni ng and improvi ng the party's mas s work in t he ne w situati on, it i s of de cisive sig nifica nce t o consolidati ng the ruling Foundation of the party . "Through our party a nd some of the w orld's maj or lessons lear ned from the succe ss of the old party of the party, Comrade Jiang Zemin poi nted out:" the biggest political a dvantage of our party is in close conta ct with the ma sses, the most danger ous after the ruli ng party was divor ced from the masse s. "He sai d:" our ref orm and construction, only the under standing, support a nd partici pation of the people, pe opl e's ent husiasm and cre ativity into full play in or der to advance; the leader shi p of the party, only t he tie and win t he masse s embra ced, can be consoli dated a nd strengthene d. "He pointe d out that stre ngthe ning and impr oving the party's w ork styl e constr ucti on, mai ntaini ng the party' s flesh -and-blood tie s with the masses i s the core probl em, the ke y is to do soli d work, impl ement, re sol utely oppose and over come formali sm. Comra de Jiang Zemin stressed that all t he work a nd poli cies of the party, are i n compliance wit h the fundame ntal intere sts

of the overw helming maj ority of the pe opl e to the highe st degree , to the maj ority of pe ople are not sati sfied wit h the fundam enta l guideline s, strive to make our w orkers, farmers, i ntelle ctuals a nd other people enjoy .. . Single, ev eryone seeme d to know. But well k now n does not mean perfect. S ome party members a nd le ading cadr es, consider contacti ng their small departme nts, within a small circle of people, or contact i ndivi dual owner s, the e ntrepr ene ur, is the m asses , this i dea is obvi ously not corre ct. The Communist Party of China , pe ople shoul d have thr ee characteri stics . First, the people s hould be the most social, is a De partment wit hin t he scope of the majority.

Specific to the party and Gover nment de partment s, es pecia lly the ca dres w orking i n the Central a nd State orga ns, ma ss is the 1.3 bi llion Chi nes e pe ople, work for the party m embers a nd cadre s, masse s are the land within t he juri sdi ction of the common people. T he se cond chara cteristi c of the mas ses, i s that we have common int erests.

Masses are manifestati ons of each specific people, but the crow d is a compre hensive political conce pt, refers to people wit h common political and economi c interests i n the period of social transformation, social differe ntiation betwe en the i nterest s of the mas ses is large , if you do not find the i nterest i n doing mass work, the party members a nd cadr es, will be in a passive position. The t hird chara cteristi c of the mass es

probl ems that cannot be ignore d. S ome leader s unwilli ng to do masse s work, ma sses conce pt weak, on mas ses feeli ngs not de ep, pendul um not are with mas ses of relationshi p, thi nk masse s work i s revol utionary war era of thi ngs, now obsolete has, burie d busi ness work, ig nore d masses work of situation compared G eneral; some lea ders not do mas ses w ork, ol d method regar dless of with, new not with, not understa nd mas ses psychologi cal, not understand masses wis hes, not sai d mass es lang ua ge, w ork method sim ple stiff, caused mas ses of confli ct and anti pathy; s ome lea ders ca n't do mass es w ork, Faced with a l ot of contradi ctions among the people w orry about fear, pani c set i n e ncounter gr oup events, and some ar e even misma naged, inflame, s o work has suffered heavy l os ses, a nd so on. T hese problems we are soberly aware , enhancing t he party' s ruli ng capabilit y, the maintenance a nd development of the party's a dvanced nature a nd purit y, and to e nha nce the a bility of party committees a nd lea ding ca dre s are good people.

Attach great importance to and is good at doi ng mass w ork, ha s be come t he new urge nt situati on stre ngthe ning t he party's g over ning capa city-building tasks . Combine d pra ctice of maintaini ng flesh -and-blood tie s with t he mas ses, urged the broa d masse s of party members and ca dres, e spe cially all l evels .. . Proces sing to improve a s a gui de to t he country. "" What I di d is s ummed up the se new thi ngs, be pr omoted. "T his i s a vivid manifestation of the Deng Xiaoping' s mass. Deng al so put people "support does not s upport", "agreed not to agre e", "happy ha ppy", "promis e not to pr omise" as a starti ng point a nd destinati on of

developing guideli nes, poli cies, a nd a s the only standard for meas uring complia nce with the wishes of the mas ses of the people. Under the gui dance of De ng Xia opi ng the ory, Central G overnme nt adopted a s eries of important measure s to strengt hen li nks wit h the masse s. I n December 19 89, the CPC Ce ntral Committee made on a dheri ng to and perfe cting the sy stem of multi-party cooperation and political consultati on under the lea ders hip of the Chi nese Communist Party, closely for CPC and the democratic parties a nd t he relations hip between t he part of the masses t hat they contact, effe ctively carrying out the ma ss line , played a posit ive role. I n March 19 90, the 1 3 ple nary ses sion adopted t he de cisi on on stre ngthe ning conta cts with t he masse s of the Party noted that "create d and devel ope d in the long struggle of the party's mass li ne, is t o realize the party's ide ologi cal li ne, the f undamental political a nd organizati onal w ork route", can always mai ntain fles h-a nd-bl ood ties and devel opme nt of the mass es, is directly related t o the ris e and fall of the ri se and fall of the party and Stat e. In Se ptember 1 994, 14 a dopted by t he ple nary se ssion of the Party on stre ngthe ning decis ion on several maj or iss ues of party buil ding.

The requirements of the de cisi on of the party's lea ding bodie s and leadi ng ca dres s hould develop a democratic style of work, come from the masse s, to the mas ses, toget her, stick to the mass line. Party of 13 s essi on four in the plenary yihou, to J iang comrade for core of party

M~ε c 曲线

在各级荷载下,截面的变形沿高度的分布图

项目要保证工程质量,由分管副总经理、技术负责人和安检部组成的全体系专施现场监督测及核验记录并认真做好隐蔽收签of third generation Central l ed colle ctive, ba nner Deng Xiao -pi ng's theory great flag, ins isted li berati on thoug ht, and facts, a nd times, i n both at home and abroad political storm, a nd e conomic ri sk, severe te st before , relies on party a nd people, defended China features Sociali st, create d sociali st market new system, created full open new situati on, adva nce party of construction ne w of great engi neering , founde d "three a repr ese ntative" important t houg ht, Conti nue t o steer the shi p of reform and opening up forw ard on the rig ht. Comra de Jiang Zemi n said: "strengtheni ng and improvi ng the party's mas s work in t he ne w situati on, it i s of de cisive sig nifica nce t o cons olidati ng the ruling Foundation of the party . "Through our party a nd s om e of the w orld's maj or les sons lear ned from the succe ss of the old party of the party, Comrade Jiang Zemin poi nted out:" the biggest political a dvantage of our party is in close conta ct with the ma sses , the most danger ous after the ruli ng party was divor ced from the masse s. "He sai d:" our ref orm and construction, only the under standing, support a nd partici pation of the people, pe opl e's ent husiasm and cre ativity into full play in or der to advance; the leader shi p of the party, only t he tie and win t he masse s embra ced, can be consoli dated a nd strengthene d. "He pointe d out that stre ngthe ning and impr oving the party's w ork style constr ucti on, mai ntaini ng the party' s flesh -and-blood tie s with the masses i s the core probl em, the ke y is to do soli d work, impl ement, re sol utely oppose and over come formali sm. Comra de Jiang Zemin stress ed that all t he work a nd poli cies of the party, are i n compliance wit h the fundame ntal intere sts

of the overw helming maj ority of the pe opl e to the highe st degree , to the maj ority of pe ople are not sati sfied wit h the fundamenta l guideline s, strive to make our w orkers, farmers, i ntelle ctuals a nd other people enjoy .. . Single, ev eryone seeme d to know. But well k now n does not mean perfect. S ome party members a nd le ading cadr es, consider contacti ng their small departme nts, within a small circle of people, or contact i ndivi dual owner s, the e ntrepr ene ur, is the masses , this i dea is obvi ously not corre ct. The Communist Party of China , pe ople shoul d have thr ee characteri stics . First, the people s hou ld be the most social, is a De partment wit hin t he scope of the majority.

Specific to the party and Gover nment de partment s, es pecia lly the ca dres w orking i n the Central a nd State orga ns, ma ss is the 1.3 bi llion Chi nes e pe ople, work for the party members a nd cadre s, masse s are the land within t he juri sdi ction of the common people. T he se cond chara cteristi c of the mas ses, i s that we h ave common int erests.

8
Masses are manifestati ons of each specific people, but the crow d is a compre hensive political conce pt, ref ers to people wit h common political and economi c interests i n the period of social transformation, social differe ntiation bet we en the i nterest s of the mas ses is large , if you do not find the i nterest i n doing mass work, the party members a nd cadr es, will be in a passive position. The t hird chara cteristi c of the mass es

probl ems that cannot be ignored. Some lea ders unwilling t o do mass es w ork, masse s concept weak, on mas ses feeli ngs not deep, pe ndulum not are with mas ses of relationshi p, thi nk mas ses w ork is rev oluti onary w ar era of thi ngs, now obs olete ha s, buried busine ss w ork, ig nore d masse s work of situation compare d Ge neral; some lea ders not do ma sses work, old met hod regardl ess of with, new not with, not understand masse s psychologi cal, not understand masse s wis hes, not sai d masse s lang uage, w ork method simple stiff, cause d masse s of conflict and anti pathy; s ome lea ders can't do mas ses w ork, Face d with a lot of contradi ctions among the pe ople worry a bout fear, pani c set i n e ncount er group eve nts, a nd s ome are even misma naged, inflame, s o w ork ha s s uffered heavy l osse s, a nd so on. Thes e pr oblems we are soberly aware, enhancing t he party's ruli ng ca pability, the maintenance and development of the party's adva nce d nat ure a nd purity, an d to enhance the ability of part y

committees and leadi ng ca dres are good people.

Attach great importance to a nd is g ood at doi ng mass w ork, has become the new urgent situati on stre ngthe ning t he party's gov erning capa city-buil ding task s. Combined pra ctice of maintaini ng flesh -and-blood ties with the mas ses, urged the broad mas ses of party members and ca dres, es pe cially all levels ... Pr oce ssing t o improve a s a guide to the country. "" What I di d is s ummed up these new things, be pr omoted. "This is a vivi d manifestation of the De ng Xia opi ng's mas s. De ng also put people "support does not support", "agreed not to agree", "happy happy", "promise not to pr omise" as a starting poi nt and desti nation of devel opi ng guideline s, policie s, and as the only standard for measuri ng complia nce wit h the wi she s of the mass es of the people. Under the gui dance of De ng Xi aoping the ory, Central G overnm e nt adopted a series of important measure s to stre ngthen li nks wit h the mas ses. I n De cember 1 989, t he CPC Ce ntral Committe e

made on a dhering to and perfecti ng the system of multi-party cooperati on a nd politi cal cons ultation under t he leadershi p of the Chi nese Communist Part y, cl osely for CPC and t he democrati c parties and the relati ons hip betwee n the part of the mas ses t hat they conta ct, effectively carryi ng out t he mass line , played a positive role . In March 1990 , the 13 ple nary ses sion adopte d the deci sion on strengtheni ng contacts with the masses of the Party noted t hat "created a nd developed in the long struggle of the party's mas s line, is to real ize the party's ideol ogical li ne, t he fundamental politi cal and organizational w ork route", can al ways maintain fle sh-and-blood ties and devel opme nt of the mas ses, is directly relate d to the rise a nd fall of the ri se a nd fall of the party and Stat e. In Se ptember 1 994, 1 4 adopted by the ple nary ses sion of the Party on strengthe ning decision on several maj or issue s of party buil ding.

The requirements of the decisi on of the party' s leadi ng bodie s and leadi ng ca dres

should develop a dem ocratic styl e of work, come from the masse s, to the masses, t ogethe r, stick to t he mass li ne. Party of 13 sessi on four in the ple nary yihou, to Jia ng comra de for core of party

八、对梁试验的分析和结论: 提示:可描述下列方面的内容, 1.梁的变形规律如何,平截面假定是否成立等。 2.该梁的开裂荷载、破坏荷载及该梁是受强度破坏控制,还是受正常使用极限状态控制(即
挠度和裂缝最大宽度控制)。 3.该梁的破坏形态,及解释为什么会产生这种形态的破坏 4.试验值 Put 与计算值 Pu 不同的原因分析 5.对有关试验的体会:例如试验中应注意什么,怎样才能做成功试验,对本次试验应作哪些
改进以促进和提高试验的精确程度等等。

项目要保证工程质量,由分管副总经理、技术负责人和安检部组成的全体系专施现场监督测及核验记录并认真做好隐蔽收签of third generati on Central led coll ective, banner De ng Xia o-ping' s the ory great flag, insiste d liberation t hought, and facts, a nd times, i n both at home and abr oad politi cal storm, a nd e conomic ri sk, severe test before, relie s on party and pe opl e, defende d Chi na features S ociali st, created socialist market new system, created full open new sit uation, adva nce party of construction new of great engineering, founded "thre e a repres entative" importa nt thought, Conti nue t o steer the shi p of reform and ope ning up forwar d on the right . Comrade Jiang Zemin said: "stre ngthe ning a nd impr oving the party's mass work in t he new situati on, it i s of de cisive significa nce t o cons olidati ng the r uling Foundation of the party. "Thr oug h our party and some of the worl d's maj or less ons learne d from the s ucces s of the old party of the party, Comra de Jiang Zemin poi nted out:" the biggest political a dv ant age of our party is in close conta ct with the ma sses, t he most danger ous after the ruli ng party was divorce d from

the masses . "He sai d:" our reform and construction, only the understanding, support and partici pation of the people, people's e nthusiasm a nd creativity into full play in order to a dvance; t he leadershi p of the party, only t he tie and wi n the mas ses embra ced, can be consoli dated a nd stre ngthe ne d. "He pointed out t hat strengtheni ng and improvi ng the party's work style construction, maintai ning the party's fles h-a nd-bl ood ties wit h the mas ses is t he core pr oblem, t he key is to do soli d work, im plement, res olutely oppose and over come formalism. Comrade Jia ng Zemin stres sed t hat all the work and policie s of the party, are i n complia nce with the f undamental intere sts of the overwhelming majority of the pe opl e to the highe st degree, t o the maj ority of pe ople are not satisfied wit h the fundame ntal gui deline s, strive to make our w orkers, farmers, intelle ctual s and ot her pe opl e enjoy ... Si ngle, everyone s e emed to k now. But w ell known doe s not mea n perfe ct. Some party members and lea ding

cadres, consi der contacti ng their small de partments, within a small cir cle of people, or contact i ndivi dual owners, the entrepre ne ur, is t he mass es, thi s ide a is obviously not correct. T he Communist Party of China , pe ople shoul d have t hree characteristi cs. First, the people s hould be the most s ocial , is a Department withi n the scope of the majorit y.

Specific to the party a nd G overnme nt de partments, e spe cially the cadre s worki ng in t he Ce ntral and State organs, mass i s the 1. 3 bill ion Chi nese pe ople, work for the party members and cadre s, masse s are the l and withi n the j uris dicti on of the common people. T he se cond chara cteristic of the mass es, is t hat we have common interest s.

Masses are manifestations of each specific people, but t he cr owd is a comprehe nsive politi cal concept , refers to pe opl e with common political a nd e conomi c interests i n the period of s ocial transformation, social differentiation between t he intere sts of the mas ses i s large, if you do not find the i nterest i n

doing mas s work, t he party member s and cadre s, will be in a pa ssive positi on. T he thir d characteristi c of the mas ses



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